Semi-precious stones

A gemstone is a precious or fine ornamental stone.

Rough stone torn from the heart earth by the minor, a gem is often cut by the lapidary and finally mounted on a ringearring or any other jewelry adornments. It may be natural, processed or artificially manufactured (synthetic stone).

Few gems are perfectly pure. Most of them contain foreign bodies and have various accidents or crystallization. These accidents are considered 
“inclusions”, which should not be described as "defects" because their presence does not necessarily lead to a depreciation of the gem.

Inclusions follow strict laws and they can provide information about the formation and types of deposits of precious stones, or ornamental stones.
These are identification characteristics: each gemstone has its own concealing inclusions.

The inclusions are relatively common in minerals; they are either of the same species (diamond inclusion in the diamond, for example) or foreign (or in the inclusion of gold on the quartz, for example). Even if they are small, the inclusions can provide valuable insights into the formation of the 
surrounding crystal, called "host crystal."

Included minerals can be older than the surrounding stone, and have simply been submerged in the stone during its growth. They can also have been formed 
simultaneously with the host crystal, which, following more rapid growth, included it in its mass.

There are, in addition, inclusions which are more recent than the host crystal: they come from liquids which are introduced through cracks in the 

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Smoky quartz:

This is a variety of quartz which owes its color to natural radiation (or artificial) of small traces of salts of aluminum. The color of smoky quartz can vary from brown to black. This color change varies according to the duration of its exposure to the radiation of the surrounding granite, and this color gives clues about the speed of the uplift of the land in which it was found.

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Rose quartz:

It is a variety of quartz colored by metal oxides, manganese, titan. A recent study shows that many pieces of rose quartz owe their color to microinclusions of Dumortierite 4.

Several tons of Rose Quartz in Brazilian deposits (Minas Gerais). It is operated as a fine stone, carved or sculpted. The most beautiful stones come from Madagascar and Brazil. In Europe, it was Poland who first gave groups of centimetric crystals.

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The black agate:

The agate is a variety of chalcedony, which is characterized by successive deposits of different colors or shades. This is a fine stone. From the Greek word “akhatês”, it owes its name to a river in Sicily in which it was found in abundance.

There are many varieties that have the appearance of red coloring, green, yellow, blue or black. Those whose color is bright can be artificially colored. 

The process takes advantage of the porosity of the agate and it is documented already in 1820 in the region of Idar-Oberstein.

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It is the lining of certain mollusk shells, composed of aragonite crystals and conchiolin iridescent. It is a long-desired product for decoration, inlaid jewelry making or buttons, so much that certain shellfish (such as the abalone) have disappeared locally. The nacre is more resistant to the acids than the shell and it is reconstituted when punctured or damaged in the living shell.

When a foreign element/irritant enters the shell of these mollusks, they also secrete nacre layer after layer around the irritant element to protect themselves, thereby forming one or more pearls.

Unlike the other layers of the shell, the nacre is synthesized by the mollusk throughout his life.
The pearl is one of the “fine stones” ("semi-precious"). There are three colors of natural pearls: pink pearl, white pearl, and black pearl.

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